Python3网络编程--socket编程之Tcp编程

目录

1:Python3中socket编程介绍

2:简单的点对点

3:并发服务端

3.1:创建线程处理

3.2:socketserver模块处理

3.3:使用select模块

4:socket实现web服务器

4.1:简单web服务器

4.2:简单web服务器:函数版本

4.3:简单web服务器:返回动态页面

4.4:并发web服务器


1:Python3中socket编程介绍

这里就不介绍网络编程的基础知识了,比如TCP/IP协议,OSI模型,TCP的三次握手等。下面直接介绍python中socket编程;

2:简单的点对点

只接受单个连接的服务端:
01_TcpServer.py: 

# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-

import socket
import time

server = socket.socket()
ip_port = ('127.0.0.1',8000)
server.bind(ip_port)  # 绑定ip+端口
server.listen(10)  # 监听

# print(help(server.listen))

print('启动服务:等待客户端的连接......')
conn,addr = server.accept()
print('客户端已连接:')
print(conn)
print(addr)

while True:
    print('等待客户端的数据:')
    client_data = conn.recv(1024)  # 接收客户端的数据,接收的数据是当前时间的秒数,下面处理是把秒转换为字符串
    client_data = client_data.decode('utf-8')
    stru_t = time.localtime(float(client_data))
    strTime = time.strftime('%Y-%m-%d %H:%M:%S',stru_t)
    print(f'接收来自{addr}的数据:{strTime}' )

    conn.send(str(time.time()).encode('utf-8'))  # 给客户端发送当前时间的秒数

conn.close()
server.close()

01_TcpClient.py

# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-

import socket
import  time
client = socket.socket()
ip_port = ('127.0.0.1',8000)
client.connect(ip_port)

while True:
    client.send(str(time.time()).encode('utf-8'))
    print('等待服务端的数据:')

    server_data = client.recv(1024)
    server_data = server_data.decode('utf-8')
    stru_t = time.localtime(float(server_data))
    strTime = time.strftime('%Y-%m-%d %H:%M:%S', stru_t)
    print(f'来自服务端的数据:{strTime}')
    time.sleep(10)

client.close()

3:并发服务端

3.1:创建线程处理

对于每个客户端连接都创建一个线程来处理:

02_TcpServer.py:

# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-

import socket
from socket import SOL_SOCKET,SO_REUSEADDR
import time
import threading  # 线程模块
import traceback  # 打印异常信息

# 处理每个链接
def handle_client(conn, addr):
    print(conn, addr)
    while True:
        try:
            print(f'等待客户端{addr}的数据:')
            client_data = conn.recv(1024)  # 接收客户端的数据,接收的数据是当前时间的秒数,下面处理是把秒转换为字符串
            client_data = client_data.decode('utf-8')
            stru_t = time.localtime(float(client_data))
            strTime = time.strftime('%Y-%m-%d %H:%M:%S', stru_t)
            print(f'接收来自{addr}的数据:{strTime}')

            conn.send(str(time.time()).encode('utf-8'))  # 给客户端发送当前时间的秒数
        except ConnectionResetError:
            val = traceback.format_exc()
            print(val)
            break
        except Exception:
            val = traceback.format_exc()
            print(val)

    print(f'关闭链接{addr}')
    conn.close()


def StartTcpServer(ip,port):
    server = socket.socket()
    server.setsockopt(SOL_SOCKET, SO_REUSEADDR, 1)  # 在bind前加,允许地址重用
    server.bind((ip,port))  # 绑定ip+端口
    server.listen(10)  # 监听

    # print(help(server.accept))

    while True:
        try:
            print('等待客户端的连接......')
            conn, addr = server.accept()  # 一直会阻塞在这里,直到有新的连接进来
            # 创建一个线程来处理每个链接
            threading.Thread(target=handle_client, args=(conn, addr)).start()
        except Exception:
            val = traceback.format_exc()
            print(val)
            break  # 有异常退出循环

    server.close()

if __name__ == '__main__':
    StartTcpServer('127.0.0.1', 8000)

02_TcpClient.py:

# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-

import socket
import  time
import traceback

def StartTcpClient(ip_port):
    # 开3个客户端
    client_list = [socket.socket() for i in range(3)]
    # ip_port = ('127.0.0.1',8000)

    for client in client_list:
        print(client)
        client.connect(ip_port)

    while True:
        for index,client in enumerate(client_list):
            try:
                client.send(str(time.time()).encode('utf-8'))
                print(f'clirnt[{index}],等待服务端的数据:')

                server_data = client.recv(1024)
                server_data = server_data.decode('utf-8')
                stru_t = time.localtime(float(server_data))
                strTime = time.strftime('%Y-%m-%d %H:%M:%S', stru_t)
                print(f'来自服务端的数据:{strTime}')
                time.sleep(2)

            except Exception:
                val = traceback.format_exc()
                print(val)
                client.close()
                client_list.remove(client)


if __name__ == '__main__':
    StartTcpClient(('127.0.0.1',8000))

3.2:socketserver模块处理

在上面使用每来一个连接,就创建一个线程的方式来处理,如果连接的数量过多,创建线程就会出现问题。

在Python中提供了socketserver模块,socketserver在内部使用IO多路复用以及多线程/进程机制,实现了并发处理多个客户端请求的socket服务端。

03_TcpServer.py

# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-

import socketserver
import time
import traceback  # 打印异常信息

def handle_client_data(data,addr):
    try:
        data = data.decode('utf-8')
        # print(type(data),data)
        stru_t = time.localtime(int(data))
        strTime = time.strftime('%Y-%m-%d %H:%M:%S', stru_t)
        print(f"来自{addr}的客户端向你发来信息:{data},转换之后:{strTime}"  )
    except Exception:
        pass

# 每个链接都使用一个 TcpServer 实例对象来处理,并且会自动调用handle方法,退出handle方法链接就会自动断开。
class TcpServer(socketserver.BaseRequestHandler):
    """
    必须继承socketserver.BaseRequestHandler类
    """
    def handle(self):
        """
        必须实现这个方法!
        :return:
        """
        conn = self.request         # request里封装了所有请求的数据
        conn.sendall(str(time.time()).encode('utf-8'))
        print(f"1111:{self.client_address}")    # 打日志验证每个链接是不是都会进来一次
        while True:
            try:
                data = conn.recv(1024)
                handle_client_data(data,self.client_address)
                conn.sendall(str(int(time.time())).encode('utf-8'))
            except Exception:
                val = traceback.format_exc()
                print(val)
                break
        print(f'退出客户端{self.client_address}的处理。')

def StartTcpServer(ip,port):
    # 创建一个多线程TCP服务器
    server = socketserver.ThreadingTCPServer((ip,port), TcpServer)
    print("启动socketserver服务器!")
    # 启动服务器,服务器将一直保持运行状态
    server.serve_forever()

if __name__ == '__main__':
    StartTcpServer('127.0.0.1', 8000)
03_TcpClient.py:
# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-

import socket
import  time
import traceback

def StartTcpClient(ip_port,nums):
    client_list = [socket.socket() for i in range(nums)]
    for client in client_list:
        print(client)
        client.connect(ip_port)

    while True:
        try:
            for index,client in enumerate(client_list):
                try:
                    # client.send(str( int(time.time()) ).encode('utf-8'))
                    client.sendall(str( int(time.time()) ).encode('utf-8'))
                    print(f'clirnt[{index}],等待服务端的数据:')

                    server_data = client.recv(1024)
                    # print(f'来自服务端的数据:{server_data}')
                    try:
                        server_data = server_data.decode('utf-8')
                        stru_t = time.localtime(float(server_data))
                        strTime = time.strftime('%Y-%m-%d %H:%M:%S', stru_t)
                        print(f'来自服务端的数据:{server_data} 转换之后:{strTime}')
                    except Exception:
                        pass
                    time.sleep(1)


                except (ConnectionResetError,ConnectionAbortedError):
                    val = traceback.format_exc()
                    print(val)
                    client.close()
                    client_list.remove(client)

                    if len(client_list) < 1:
                        raise

                except Exception:
                    val = traceback.format_exc()
                    print(val)

        except Exception:
            val = traceback.format_exc()
            print(val)
            print('退出')
            break

def test():
    print(str(time.time() ),time.time(),int(time.time()))

if __name__ == '__main__':
    StartTcpClient(('127.0.0.1',8000),1)
    test()

3.3:使用select模块

Python中的select模块专注于I/O多路复用,提供了select  poll  epoll三个方法(其中后两个在Linux中可用,windows仅支持select),另外也提供了kqueue方法(freeBSD系统)

select方法:
进程指定内核监听哪些文件描述符(最多监听1024个fd)的哪些事件,当没有文件描述符事件发生时,进程被阻塞;当一个或者多个文件描述符事件发生时,进程被唤醒。
04_TcpServer.py:

# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-

import socket
import select
from socket import SOL_SOCKET,SO_REUSEADDR
import time
import traceback  # 打印异常信息


def handle_client_data(data,addr):
    try:
        data = data.decode('utf-8')
        # print(type(data),data)
        stru_t = time.localtime(int(data))
        strTime = time.strftime('%Y-%m-%d %H:%M:%S', stru_t)
        print(f"来自{addr.getpeername()}的客户端向你发来信息:{data},转换之后:{strTime}")
    except Exception:
        pass


def StartTcpServer(ip,port):
    server = socket.socket()
    server.setsockopt(SOL_SOCKET, SO_REUSEADDR, 1)  # 在bind前加,允许地址重用
    server.bind((ip,port))  # 绑定ip+端口
    server.listen(10)  # 监听

    read_fd_list = [server,]

    while True:
        try:
            r_list, w_list, error_list = select.select(read_fd_list, [], [], 1) # 超时设置为1秒

            stru_t = time.localtime(time.time())
            strTime = time.strftime('%Y-%m-%d %H:%M:%S', stru_t)
            print(f'select之后:len(r_list)={len(r_list)},时间:{strTime}')

            for fd in r_list:  # r_list 为可读的文件描述符列表
                if fd == server: #   可读的文件描述符 为 server(上面起服务创建的),说明有链接请求过来。
                    conn, addr = fd.accept()  #  接收客户端链接
                    print(addr)
                    read_fd_list.append(conn)  # 把客户端,加入读轮询列表
                    data = conn.recv(1024)
                    print(f'接收数据:msg={data}')
                    handle_client_data(data, conn)
                    conn.sendall(str(time.time()).encode('utf-8'))  # sendall 会循环调用send,把所有数据都发出去。
                    # conn.send(str(time.time()).encode('utf-8'))     # send 发送出去的数据可能是部分数据
                else: # 客户端可读,就是有客户端发送数据过来。
                    try:
                        data = fd.recv(1024)
                        # print(help(fd))
                        handle_client_data(data,fd)
                        fd.sendall(str(int(time.time())).encode('utf-8'))
                    except (ConnectionResetError,ConnectionAbortedError,ConnectionRefusedError):
                        val = traceback.format_exc()
                        print(val)
                        fd.close()
                        read_fd_list.remove(fd)

        except Exception:
            val = traceback.format_exc()
            print(val)
            break  # 有异常退出循环

    server.close()

if __name__ == '__main__':
    StartTcpServer('127.0.0.1', 8000)

04_TcpClient.py:

# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-

import socket
import  time
import traceback

def StartTcpClient(ip_port,nums):
    client_list = [socket.socket() for i in range(nums)]
    for client in client_list:
        print(client)
        client.connect(ip_port)

    while True:
        try:
            for index,client in enumerate(client_list):
                try:
                    client.sendall(str( int(time.time()) ).encode('utf-8'))
                    # client.send(str( int(time.time()) ).encode('utf-8'))
                    print(f'clirnt[{index}],等待服务端的数据:')

                    server_data = client.recv(1024)
                    # print(f'来自服务端的数据:{server_data}')
                    server_data = server_data.decode('utf-8')
                    stru_t = time.localtime(float(server_data))
                    strTime = time.strftime('%Y-%m-%d %H:%M:%S', stru_t)
                    print(f'来自服务端的数据:{server_data} 转换之后:{strTime}')
                    # time.sleep(1)

                except (ConnectionResetError, ConnectionAbortedError, ConnectionRefusedError):
                    val = traceback.format_exc()
                    print(val)
                    client.close()
                    client_list.remove(client)

                    if len(client_list) < 1:
                        raise

                except Exception:
                    val = traceback.format_exc()
                    print(val)

        except Exception:
            val = traceback.format_exc()
            print(val)
            print('退出')
            break

if __name__ == '__main__':
    StartTcpClient(('127.0.0.1',8000),1)
    # StartTcpClient(('127.0.0.1',8000),2000)  

4:socket实现web服务器

4.1:简单web服务器

在浏览器中访问  http://127.0.0.1:8000/home 等

# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-
import socket

def StartWebServer(ip,port):
    # 创建socket对象
    sk = socket.socket()

    # 绑定IP和端口
    sk.bind((ip,port))

    # 监听
    sk.listen()

    while True:
        # 等待连接
        conn, addr = sk.accept()
        # 接收数据
        data = conn.recv(8096)
        print(data)

        # 返回状态行
        conn.send(b'HTTP/1.1 200 OK\r\n\r\n')

        # 返回数据
        try:
            data = data.decode('utf-8')
            url = data.split()[1]
            ret_data = url
            if url == "/test":
                ret_data = "test"
            elif url == "/home":
                ret_data = "home"
            elif url == "/index":
                ret_data = "index"
            else:
                ret_data = "404"
            conn.send(f'<h1>{ret_data}</h1>'.encode('utf-8'))
        except Exception:
            pass

        # 关闭连接
        conn.close()


if __name__ == '__main__':
    StartWebServer('127.0.0.1', 8000)

4.2:简单web服务器:函数版本

# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-
import socket
import time

def test(url):
    ret = f'test: {url}'
    return ret.encode('utf-8')

def index(url):
    ret = f'index: {url}'
    return ret.encode('utf-8')

def home(url):
    ret = f'home: {url}'
    return ret.encode('utf-8')

def gettime(url):
    now = time.strftime('%Y-%m-%d %H:%M:%S')
    ret = f'time: {url} {now}'
    return ret.encode('utf-8')

url_map = {'/test':test,'/index':index,'/home':home,'/time':gettime}


def handle_client_data(data):
    data = data.decode('utf-8')
    url = data.split()[1]

    ret_data = url
    if url in url_map:
        func = url_map[url]
        ret_data = func(url)
    else:
        ret_data = b"404"
    return ret_data

def StartWebServer(ip,port):
    # 创建socket对象
    sk = socket.socket()

    # 绑定IP和端口
    sk.bind((ip,port))

    # 监听
    sk.listen()

    while True:
        # 等待连接
        conn, addr = sk.accept()
        # 接收数据
        data = conn.recv(8096)
        print(data)

        # 返回状态行
        conn.send(b'HTTP/1.1 200 OK\r\n\r\n')

        # 返回数据
        try:
            ret_data = handle_client_data(data)
            conn.send(ret_data)
        except Exception:
            pass

        # 关闭连接
        conn.close()

if __name__ == '__main__':
    StartWebServer('127.0.0.1', 8000)

在浏览器中访问:http://127.0.0.1:8000/time

4.3:简单web服务器:返回动态页面

# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-
import socket
import time

def test(url):
    ret = f'test: {url}'
    return ret.encode('utf-8')

def index(url):
    with open('index.html', 'rb') as f:
        ret = f.read()
        return ret

def home(url):
    ret = f'home: {url}'
    return ret.encode('utf-8')

def gettime(url):
    now = time.strftime('%Y-%m-%d %H:%M:%S')
    with open('time.html', 'r', encoding='utf-8') as f:
        data = f.read()
        data = data.replace('##time##', now)
        return data.encode('utf-8')

url_map = {'/test':test,'/index':index,'/home':home,'/time':gettime}


def handle_client_data(data):
    data = data.decode('utf-8')
    url = data.split()[1]

    ret_data = url
    if url in url_map:
        func = url_map[url]
        ret_data = func(url)
    else:
        ret_data = b"404"
    return ret_data

def StartWebServer(ip,port):
    # 创建socket对象
    sk = socket.socket()

    # 绑定IP和端口
    sk.bind((ip,port))

    # 监听
    sk.listen()

    while True:
        # 等待连接
        conn, addr = sk.accept()
        # 接收数据
        data = conn.recv(8096)
        print(data)

        # 返回状态行
        conn.send(b'HTTP/1.1 200 OK\r\n\r\n')

        # 返回数据
        try:
            ret_data = handle_client_data(data)
            conn.send(ret_data)
        except Exception:
            pass

        # 关闭连接
        conn.close()

if __name__ == '__main__':
    StartWebServer('127.0.0.1', 8000)

index.html

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html lang="en">
<head>
    <meta charset="UTF-8">
    <title>index</title>
</head>
<body>
<div>
    <h1>index</h1>
	<h2>index</h2>
	<h3>index</h3>
	<h4>index</h4>
</div>
</body>
</html>

time.html

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html lang="en">
<head>
    <meta charset="UTF-8">
    <title>time</title>
</head>
<body>
<h1>当前时间是: ##time## </h1>
</body>
</html>

4.4:并发web服务器

使用socketserver实现:

# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-

import socketserver
import time
import traceback  # 打印异常信息


def test(url):
    ret = f'test: {url}'
    return ret.encode('utf-8')

def index(url):
    with open('index.html', 'rb') as f:
        ret = f.read()
        return ret

def home(url):
    ret = f'home: {url}'
    return ret.encode('utf-8')

def gettime(url):
    now = time.strftime('%Y-%m-%d %H:%M:%S')
    with open('time.html', 'r', encoding='utf-8') as f:
        data = f.read()
        data = data.replace('##time##', now)
        return data.encode('utf-8')

url_map = {'/test':test,'/index':index,'/home':home,'/time':gettime}


def handle_client_data(data):
    data = data.decode('utf-8')
    url = data.split()[1]

    ret_data = url
    if url in url_map:
        func = url_map[url]
        ret_data = func(url)
    else:
        ret_data = b"404"
    return ret_data



# 每个链接都使用一个 TcpServer 实例对象来处理,并且会自动调用handle方法,退出handle方法链接就会自动断开。
class TcpServer(socketserver.BaseRequestHandler):
    """
    必须继承socketserver.BaseRequestHandler类
    """
    def handle(self):
        """
        必须实现这个方法!
        :return:
        """
        conn = self.request         # request里封装了所有请求的数据
        # conn.sendall(str(time.time()).encode('utf-8'))
        # print(f"1111:{self.client_address}")    # 打日志验证每个链接是不是都会进来一次
        while True:
            try:
                data = conn.recv(8096)
                print(data)
                conn.send(b'HTTP/1.1 200 OK\r\n\r\n')

                # 返回数据
                try:
                    ret_data = handle_client_data(data)
                    conn.sendall(ret_data)
                except Exception:
                    pass

                break
            except Exception:
                val = traceback.format_exc()
                print(val)
                break
        print(f'退出客户端{self.client_address}的处理。')

def StartTcpServer(ip,port):
    # 创建一个多线程TCP服务器
    server = socketserver.ThreadingTCPServer((ip,port), TcpServer)
    print("启动socketserver服务器!")
    # 启动服务器,服务器将一直保持运行状态
    server.serve_forever()

if __name__ == '__main__':
    StartTcpServer('127.0.0.1', 8000)

 

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